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Posted on 24th Jul at 9:53 PM, with 348 notes
sciencesoup:

Photosynthesis: Calvin Cycle
You probably know that plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen, but as we saw in the last article, that isn’t a neat exchange, turning O2 into CO2. Rather, oxygen is created as a byproduct of splitting water, and CO2 is consumed by being turned into sugar. This happens in the Calvin Cycle.
In the Calvin Cycle, carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP are put in, and a sugar called G3P comes out. There are three steps to create this sugar: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration. Note that none of these steps needs direct light!
The first step is carbon fixation. CO2 is taken in from the atmosphere around the plant, added to a 5-carbon sugar called RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate), and thus turned into 3-phosphoglycerate, an organic molecule. This process is catalysed by an enzyme called Rubisco—basically, it recognises CO2 and pairs it with the “CO2 acceptor”, RuBP. For every “turn” of the Calvin Cycle, three CO2 molecules are fixed into two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules.
In the second step, reduction, the cycle takes in 6 NADPH and 6 ATP (from the light reactions) to convert these molecules into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). The “reducing power” of NADPH is used to add electrons to the molecules, and the ATP gives them phosphate groups.
Then in the last stage, regeneration, 3 more ATP molecules are used to turn five molecules of G3P back into RuBP, the CO2 acceptor, so it can be used again at the start of the cycle. What’s leftover—a single G3P—is the output of the cycle. It’s the overall goal of photosynthesis: a sugar molecule that can then be used in cellular respiration to create energy for living cells to use.

So, a roundup of the cycle:
We put in 9 ATP, 6 NADPH, and 3 CO2.
We get out 9 ADP, 6 NADP+, and 1 G3P (plus 3 RuBP molecules).
The ADP and NADP+ are then recycled back to the light reactions, and photosynthesis begins over again.
Body images sourced from Wikimedia Commons
Further resources: 3D video or Video from Crashcourse
View high resolution

sciencesoup:

Photosynthesis: Calvin Cycle

You probably know that plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen, but as we saw in the last article, that isn’t a neat exchange, turning O2 into CO2. Rather, oxygen is created as a byproduct of splitting water, and CO2 is consumed by being turned into sugar. This happens in the Calvin Cycle.

In the Calvin Cycle, carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP are put in, and a sugar called G3P comes out. There are three steps to create this sugar: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration. Note that none of these steps needs direct light!

The first step is carbon fixation. CO2 is taken in from the atmosphere around the plant, added to a 5-carbon sugar called RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate), and thus turned into 3-phosphoglycerate, an organic molecule. This process is catalysed by an enzyme called Rubisco—basically, it recognises CO2 and pairs it with the “CO2 acceptor”, RuBP. For every “turn” of the Calvin Cycle, three CO2 molecules are fixed into two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules.

In the second step, reduction, the cycle takes in 6 NADPH and 6 ATP (from the light reactions) to convert these molecules into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). The “reducing power” of NADPH is used to add electrons to the molecules, and the ATP gives them phosphate groups.

Then in the last stage, regeneration, 3 more ATP molecules are used to turn five molecules of G3P back into RuBP, the CO2 acceptor, so it can be used again at the start of the cycle. What’s leftover—a single G3P—is the output of the cycle. It’s the overall goal of photosynthesis: a sugar molecule that can then be used in cellular respiration to create energy for living cells to use.

So, a roundup of the cycle:

  • We put in 9 ATP, 6 NADPH, and 3 CO2.
  • We get out 9 ADP, 6 NADP+, and 1 G3P (plus 3 RuBP molecules).
  • The ADP and NADP+ are then recycled back to the light reactions, and photosynthesis begins over again.

Body images sourced from Wikimedia Commons

Further resources: 3D video or Video from Crashcourse

Posted on 24th Jul at 9:48 PM, with 241 notes
"What if there’s a better way forward than developing new drugs? What if we could “reverse evolution” and take germs to the state they were in the 1960s, when drug resistance wasn’t such a big problem?"
Posted on 24th Jul at 1:54 PM, with 8 notes
Spending all that money just for a plane ticket home
Posted on 24th Jul at 1:48 PM, with 113,084 notes

I have reblogged this a few times and it’s true. Spider-Man does the same thing for the same reason. Because you know, there is just too much pain to just be able to constantly take in. There’s more pain to help fix and you have a job to do.

Posted on 24th Jul at 1:39 PM, with 223,136 notes
crusherccme:

found this gem in the 1996 Cornell Women’s Handbook. it’s what to say when a guy tries to get out of using a condom
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crusherccme:

found this gem in the 1996 Cornell Women’s Handbook. it’s what to say when a guy tries to get out of using a condom

Posted on 24th Jul at 1:29 PM, with 92 notes
douchebaguet asked: Another odd question, whats your opinion on a white cis male using his privilege to shed light and help open up peoples minds on certain topics and problems that PoC face? Is it just a cry for attention or is he using his privilege in the best way?

thisiswhiteprivilege:

I’ve never understood this notion perpetuated by some POC bloggers that white people should use their white privilege to speak out against white privilege. Like, it literally is so mind numbingly contradictory, you might as well be saying the best way to put out a fire is to set the fire on fire.

You can’t use white privilege to dismantle white privilege, because that perpetuates white privilege, and if you are perpetuating white privilege, in what sense have you possibly deluded yourself into thinking you’re dismantling it?

-Dion

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